Codons and anticodon

How to write codons and anticodons on DNA?

The Triplet Hypothesis

The theory which suggests that genetic code codons are made up of nucleotide triplets, is known as the triplet hypothesis.Triplet hypothesis was proposed by Crick and he hypothesized that the code must be made up of “words,” or codons, consisting of a minimum of three nucleotides each. He reasoned that if one nucleotide corresponded to one amino acid, the code could account for only four amino acids. If a combination of any two nucleotides was needed to code for a single amino acid, the code could generate a maximum of 42 = 16 combinations. However, if the code relied on a combination of three nucleotides to specify one amino acid, it could generate a maximum of 43 = 64 different combinations. These combinations would be more than enough to account for the 20 amino acids.
Crick conformed his hypothesis by setting up an experiment on some bacterial colonies.The set up is as follows
Image Courtesy:McGrawHill-Ryerson

What are codons and antocodons?
Codon is a series of three adjacent bases in one polynucleotide chain of a DNA or RNA molecule, which codes for a specific amino acid.

Anti codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA

How to write complimentary strand of DNA?
The paiting rule for DNA complimentary strand is as follows

A is complementary to T

T is complementary to A

C is complementary to G

G is complimentary to C

Write complimentary strand for the following DNA. Indicate 5’ and 3’ ends.

How to write anticodons from codons?

Codons are located on mRNA and antocodons are located on tRNA.The pairing rule for codons and anto codons is as follows:

A is complementary to U

U is complementary to A

C is complementary to G

G is complimentary to C


How to write amino aids from mRNA?
When writing amino acids make sure to use mRNA codons but not tRNAs.Use the codon table to find the amino acids.

Get a copy of codon table Codon Table
Download a worksheet on Codon table practice questions Codon table worksheet
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